how many h2 molecules are needed to completely hydrogenate the following triacylglycerol molecule? This is a topic that many people are looking for. bluevelvetrestaurant.com is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, bluevelvetrestaurant.com would like to introduce to you 3B 8.6 Chemical Reactions of Triacylglycerols. Following along are instructions in the video below:
And welcome back to my channel. I am at the airport in atlanta. Imm about to head back to new york and i wanted to bring you guys so you can see what its like to travel during a global pandemic during coven 19.
So come along with me. Its actually pretty empty here. Ill show you the other side.
So yeah. Its super empty music. Its like nobody here and this is like very strange for atlanta airport this is usually bustling.
Yeah so i have my mask. Im gonna put the mask on leopard mask. Lets see if i could do this one handed okay cover your nose okay.
Were masked up now lets head inside and see what the airport is looking like music so this is the delta terminal of the atlanta hartsfield airport. Hopefully you guys can hear me so not as busy as it would normally be but these people around traveling so im tsa pre truck. So this is the pre check line empty.
The regular security line super duper crowded get tsa pre check people hand sanitizing stations. Okay so i made it through security and five minutes. This is why they get into the airport early and there are like no lounges open right now so im gonna have like its 5 27.
My flight boards are 605 so i have like a 35 minute wait out in the open and i have to wear this mask. The whole time so thats gonna be pretty annoying. But you see security was pretty quick if you have tsa pre check or global entry.
I have google entry and came with tsa frequently so its worth the investment people trust. Me music check out the flight boards not a lot of music flights. Usually these boards would be full with flights theres only three four five and a quarter boards of flights music.
It is so eerie how empty this airport is look one on the escalator and if i turn it around theres no one music crazy music. How cute is that music and sanitizer stations. Everywhere music.
So. Some shops are closed. Some shops are open team is open music.
Applause. You can go go ahead music. I honestly cannot believe how empty the atlanta airport is this just doesnt happen.
But i guess it happens now during clothing. 19. So there are people here just not as many as it would normally be applause music.
We already know video music um. There music so they are boarding from the back of the plane to the front of the plane. And im in row 18.
So im in probably one of the last girls to board hopefully. Theres still overhead bens face hello thank you music music. Its our pleasure to welcome you to new york.
Were the local times thank you and thats it pretty uneventful flight. But it had a form atlanta that we were supposed to fill out i didnt get one so well see if they ask for one in new york music. Except music.
Do music wow never seen kennedy this empty. Either okay. So this is the first time.
Ive taken my mask off since 5 30 in atlanta. But i hope you enjoyed this video. Seeing what its like to travel during a global pandemic clove at 15.
I traveled from atlanta to jfk new york city and you know it was a good flight i mean everything was clean i wiped out my seat they gave out snacks on the plane they were in pre filled bags. So that was good and yeah. I mean the airlines are doing their part and were doing our part to stay safe so if youre thinking about traveling.
Its not that bad and you know go for it. So i will see you guys on the next one later hree four five six and then the sky and the bottom is bigger. These these carbon chains arent changing.
All thats happening is that were breaking this bond. Honey stop one two three four five six seven eight one two eight. I was just counting the the peaks because it ends up being less counting.
Which is good so thats what you would end up with any questions. So this is that reaction that we learned in organic chemistry. And now were just applying it to this biochemical molecule.
Another reaction is saponification and this is just the hydrolysis in basic solution of these triacylglycerols and so we can think of it as happening in two steps. This is how i prefer to think of it youve got the fat or oil. And you hydrolyze.
It just like we saw. Well get three fatty acids and glycerol. Well these fatty acids.
Are carboxylic acids. If this is in the presence of a base like sodium hydroxide. What happens to the assets.
They become salts right this. Oh wait group will pull the hydrogen off of the fatty acid. Part.
So. Lets see so. Here.
You have the o h. Thats the base. And here.
You have your fatty acid. However long. It is this hydrogen is the acidic hydrogen of that carboxylic acid.
And that is going to come over with the water and then what do we have left we take that guy off and now were left with a negative charge. Here and weve got the sodium ion from the sodium hydroxide and so we get a salt and weve seen this before as well saponification is the process by which the pioneers made soap. So you know they ate meat they either you know raised their own meat or they went hunting and they saved the fat and they heated it with lye from the ashes of the fire.
And that wood ash is actually an impure form of potassium hydroxide. So if you heat the lard with ashes in it you can make soap. Now is that a beautiful pretty smelling soap that we like to have no.
But it did the job the way fat. Im sorry the way soap works is really pretty cool so when you do that you end up with these fatty acid salts. So heres what those fatty acid salts.
Look like theyve got this carboxylate and its an ion this is very polar and then they have this long hydrocarbon chain. Which is very nonpolar so they kind of have two personalities and what they will do is they will form what are called micelles. Theyll form spherical clusters and on the interior of this will be all of those hydrophobic tails.
Those nonpolar tails. If theres any grease or oils around the grease will be soluble and be happy in here. Grease is insoluble in water and the carboxylate ends of the molecule go to the outside because they can interact the water and so you get these little very small micelles they got this anion on the outside.
And so they can move around in the water as small small particles and they basically will help to soluble eyes the grease and the fat if youve ever baked and had to grease a cookie sheet or a cake pan with crisco and get crisco on your hand. Can you rinse crisco off with water you cant it does not dissolve in water you can wipe it off with a paper towel and rub the rest of it into your skin. But the only way to get it off is to use soap.
How does soap get the grease off well this is what it does the soap molecules will put all their little tails. That are nonpolar and theyll pick up little pieces of the grease or the crisco and that will be happy in here. And its like its cloaked and stealth mode.
And then it can go out in the water because the outside of that micelle is polar and can interact with the water. Because normally if you have oil and water. They wont mix up.
But if you put soap in there then they will mix. I think thats kind of cool another reaction that these can undergo is hydrogenation and this is also one that we talked about in our organic chemistry section so hydrogenation to refresh your memory adds hydrogen across carbon carbon multiple bonds were not going to see triple bonds here were going to see double bonds. But what happens is here is an unsaturated fatty acid with a double bond well.
If the conditions are right for hydrogenation one hydrogen molecule will add across that double bond and the double bond goes away this is another one and so it will it can hydrogen eight all of those double bonds and now we have something that is saturated thats going to affect the melting point of the substance. Many food products are produced by partial hydrogenation and if youre at all interested in nutrition. Youve probably heard about you know partially hydrogenated soybean.
Oil. And youve heard about trans fats and you know. Theres all these words that get thrown around its all biochemistry thats all it is a partially hydrogenated fat.
Is where not all of the double bonds have been hydrogenated just some of them have the problem with that so here is a natural eighteen to carve a fatty acid these bonds here are almost always sis bonds and naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids. When you partially hydrogenated you remove some of the bond. The double bonds but not all of them in that process because of the catalyst that is used what happens is moute.
Many of these bonds end up opening up on the catalyst and when they reform as a double bond. They can reform in either orientation. And so these cysts bonds can be converted to trans bonds.
And thats where we get the trans fatty acids. The trans fats and were recognizing more and more that those are bad and one of the reasons that theyre bad is look this guy with its trans fats has a very similar structure to this saturated fat doesnt it so. Trans.
Fats are going to do much. The same thing that saturated. Fats do and just something to watch out for if you see a food thats labeled zero grams.
Trans. Fat per serving. That doesnt mean that there are no trans fats in it.
It means. That theres less than half. A gram.
They round right they round. So it could have up to half a gram the other thing is they dont count naturally occurring. Trans fats there are naturally occurring.
Trans so theyre only counting the man made ones so in my opinion. If you look on the label. And it says partially hydrogenated anything look for something else now honestly for pie crust for thanksgiving.
I do go with the crisco. Which is partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and im sure. Its full of trans fats.
But well survive doing that once a year. But i wouldnt want to use that on a regular basis. A lot of the fast food restaurants and stuff have gone to using different types of oils to avoid these trans fats because honestly if youre gonna end up.
With these trans fats that are just as bad as the saturated fats. Why not just use lard. Why not at least.
Its natural right. Thats my opinion. Another reaction is oxidation double bonds are subject to oxidation and this can happen just with air oxygen in the air can oxidize these double bonds and so you can end up with short chain.
Aldehydes and those can oxidize further too short chain carboxylic acids. Many of these carboxylic acids and especially the aldehydes have odors that are not pleasant. And so i dont know if youve ever encountered this but you open something that has oil in it and it doesnt smell good.
We say its rancid and whats happened is that the oils and the fats in it have become oxidized to avoid that many foods that are processed have antioxidants added as preservatives and what an antioxidant does is it gets oxidized instead of the fatty acid being oxidized. So its basically. I just lost.
The word. Its like a sacrificial molecule. This is here here oxidize me leave the fat alone so.
Theres natural ones. Vitamin c. And vitamin e or good.
Axia. Antioxidants. And there are also synthetic ones bht and bha we mentioned those earlier in this semester.
Okay determining the products for reactions that triacylglycerols undergo so hes using words rather than structural formulas. Characterized the organic products formed when the following triacylglycerol undergoes. The reactions listed.
Were going to use words. Were not going to write formulas. So if this try a cl.
Glycerol is completely hydrolyzed. What happens. When we hydrolyze it were adding water and the water is going to add in here and break these guys off.
And what do they become when they come off and the fatty acids right so from the complete hydrolysis. We would get glycerol plus three fatty acids. And this is really more what were interested in than in the very specific different molecules.
Because there are many of them. And we dont encounter them singly anyway they come all jumbled up and mixed together in their natural environment. Were more concerned with the overall idea of what are we getting so what if we do saponification using sodium hydroxide.
Were going to get fatty acid salts right because this completes saponification using sodium hydroxide is the same as hydrolysis except. Its in a basic environment and these fatty acids in a base undergo an acid base reaction and they form salt. So we will also get glycerol.
But this time well get three fatty acids salts. What if we get complete hydrogenation. What does hydrogenation do.
Its going to get rid of these double bonds complete hydrogenation means they all go away. So then whats left a saturated fatty acid. Right because this one currently would be considered polyunsaturated.
Because there are three double bonds here two on one and one on the other so complete hydrogenation would yield the saturated triacylglycerol. Thats one word you seal. Those are all any questions um.
It could turn in from a mix into a simple in this case. It would because all of these have 18 carbons. And whats making it a mixed triacylglycerol as this one has zero double bonds this one has one and this one has two so for this one when we hydrogenate it yes.
It does become a simple triacylglycerol. All of these will then be the same theyll all be 18 zeros. Now.
If you had 18 0. 21. 24.
And you hydrogenated. It you would still have a mixed one thats a good question any other questions hmm well because what makes it mixed is that the resident. These acyl groups are different so if this one instead of being 18.
If this one was 24 and this one lets say was 20 with one when i hydrogenate them. Im still going to have different carbon lengths. And so its still going to be a mixed triacylglycerol.
Because for it to be as simple they all have to be the same and they cant be the same if they have different carbon lengths. Any other questions you would need more heartache hydrogens and what was important there you can go back is it does say complete hydrogenation if it was partial hydrogenation. It would be hard to predict what would happen you would you would get a triacylglycerol that is more saturated.
But you cant really predict exactly you could get some that are completely saturated. And some that arent and basically they just they just hydrogenated enough to do what they want to the melting points. And so theyll take something thats a liquid at room temperature.
Im sorry a solid at room temperature and theyll partially hydrogenated no backwards brings not working today when you when you hydrogenate it you get rid of the double bonds and that allows the molecules to get closer together. So you have stronger intermolecular forces. And so the melting point goes up and so what was a solid will become softer itll become a liquid.
I have to think it through like that every time today my brain is very tired. .
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