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Right good morning. Weve got the last part of the unit to talk about about and we talked about pre industrial societies before this now were going to about industrial and post industrial societies. Which we are in were in the post industrial society with industrial societies.
The two biggest things to remember the things that drive industrial societies are mechanization. So thats the big change from an agricultural society. Now you have machines can that can do the work more efficiently and the nature of where people live changes people go to the cities in search of jobs because mechanization creates factories and mills where people want to work those are the those become the main institutions places.
Where people work so people move to the cities to find those jobs and away from the farm in the countryside. It has a big effect on the family as an institution. Now you have members of the family working away from the home.
When it was an agricultural society. Before that people would all work at home now some of that some of those bonds between family members start to break down somewhat driven by the economics of industrial societies. So in an industrial society.
That is a society. Where theyre dependent upon science and technology to provide the basic goods and services. Necessary for people to survive.
Mechanization. Replaces. Animal.
Power. Draft animals and human power with machine power. And then urbanization people move from the countryside from small villages to larger cities to the factories to work now the effects on the family you may have seen some of these photos before from history class.
When i say family members. I include children because during the industrial revolution. We saw child labor.
Where you could have kids yes that young five years old working in dangerous are really tough working conditions with long hours theres a coal mine. It was not uncommon in mills. Like this one you have these little kids working in front of or alongside these massive machines.
It was not uncommon for kids to lose limbs or even be killed be chewed up in one of the machines and spit out the other side. Theres a great example of it kids standing on the machine. So it had a really profound effect on the family unit bullying pinsetters.
Right. There that hadnt become mechanized. Yet so they actually rely on human power to set the pins up after somebody who excuse me it just rolled.
Okay you get the idea two key terms that we should talk about from tawnys get mine shaft and gazel shaft. Get mine. Shaft refers to the pre industrial societies.
Where solidarity what held the society together was tradition kinship between people clothes. Social ties and theres a consensus on values and norms and we see religion particularly important at that time gazel shaft refers to industrial societies where family ties are weaker. Theres more competition in the relationships between people socially is more impersonal not emile durkheim two key points here so social solidarity.
When we get to that social solidarity refers to the degree to which a society is unified any breaks social solidarity down into two categories mechanical solidarity in organic solidarity. Now this can be a little tricky because mechanical solidarity refers to pre industrial societies where people generally did the same type of work so farming and there was a consensus on values everybody had similar values and accepted common norms. So thats pre industrial before mechanization so sometimes people get this confused.
And they think that pre industrial societies had organic solidarity. Yet the best way i can say to remember. It is kind of think the opposite of what the terms would normally mean organic solidarity.
Comes along when you have industrial societies. Where the unity between people and society is based upon the specialized roles that they perform if i had to depend on myself for my food supply. Id be in trouble really quick.
Id be starving pretty quickly i depend on the farmers. I depend on the grocery store to put out the food that i eat so we have different people who perform different roles in society based on the different statuses that they have so somebody and we have doctors we have lawyers teachers farmers police officers businesspeople and so forth and that all comes about when we get the surpluses that start during the agricultural revolution and then when we get to you industrial society. Where we get machines people living in the cities.
We be what holds us together are these different statuses and roles that we have where we depend on somebody else that do something that we dont do thats organic solidarity. Now the last type of society is post industrial society. Which is a society type that we are in the emphasis here is on providing services and information.
And its also based upon the use of computers. Which blankets everything in society. Which is certainly true of our society.
These are the five characteristics of a post industrial society and this will be one of the questions on the formative in a post industrial society. This is the first time in the workforce. That there are more people employed in service industries.
Than agriculture and manufacturing. So service industries could be anything from you know retail fast food to baking something where youre performing a service for a customer in that respect second thing is there are more white collar workers than blue collar workers. We usually associate blue collar work with the trades white collar work with somebody whos working like in business.
One that doesnt require physical labor in a post industrial society. Technical knowledge. And specifically technical knowledge.
Dealing with computers is the key organizing feature. In unlike previous times during the industrial society. The industrial age where people discovered new technology now technology is planned and assessed and corrected.
Improved and so forth. And then finally computers are relied on all across a post industrial society. Every sector of the economy relies on computers.
So two questions well social instability continue and what causes a return to still social stability. So a quote here the situation of normalness is intensely uncomfortable for us. And we will seek to create new rules that replace the old ones that have been undercut so this is a functionalist perspective.
So when we have dysfunction it points to places that need correction in society makes those corrections and then we get stability again so for sociologists. What are some things that they look at as signs of instability in a society crime would be one thats from a legitimacy in other words for some social scientists. They look at one parent families and they see that as a marker of instability or dysfunction in a society divorce rates can be another marker.
These are some examples and then weak norms or bonds in society. What durkheim called anomie would be another marker. So how does society return to social stability by changing norms.
Changing values. Because of culture and change. Its used to create new social structures that are better adapted to new social and economic circumstances think about the different types of society think about how they change and adapt to new situations like how they change.
Economically and which groups are dependent upon which institutions are dependent upon to organize society. Okay so the last thing you need to do for the unit year before the test is to do the formative number 3 social structures. Formative number three and the practice test is up and set to go so that means on monday.
If i have my days correctly for the 80s on monday. We will have the social structures test and then we are on through the last unit crime and deviance okay have a good weekend. .
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