Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25

immigration and urbanization This is a topic that many people are looking for. bluevelvetrestaurant.com is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, bluevelvetrestaurant.com would like to introduce to you Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25. Following along are instructions in the video below:

“I m john. Green this is crashcourse nus. History and today. We re going to to continue nour extensive look at american capitalism.

Mr. Green. Mr. Green.

I m sorry you saying nthat. I grow up to be a tool of the bourgeoisie. Oh not just a tool of the bourgeoise. Me from nthe past.

But a card carrying member of it i mean you have employees whose labor. You ncan exploit because you own the means of production which in your case includes a chalkboard na video camera a desk and a xenophobic globe meanwhile stan danica raoul and nmeredith toil in crushing poverty. Stan did you write this part nthese are all lies cue the intro theme music so last week. We saw how commercial farming transformed the american west and gave us mythical cowboys and unfortunately not so mythical nindian reservations today.

We leave the sticks and head for the ncities as so many americans and immigrants nhave done throughout this nation s history. I mean we may like to imagine that the history of america is all go west young man. But in fact from mark twain to pretty much nevery hipster in brooklyn. It s the opposite.

So population was growing everywhere nin america after 1850 following a major economic downturn in nthe 1890s farm prices made a comeback and that drew more and more people out nwest to take part in what would eventually be ncalled agriculture s golden age. Although to be fair agriculture s real golden age was nin like 3000 bce when mesopotamians were like dude. If we planted these in rows. We ncould have more of it than we can eat so it was really more of a second golden age.

But anyway more than a million land claims nwere filed under the homestead act in the 1890s and between 1900. And 1910. The npopulations of texas and oklahoma together nincreased by almost 2 million people and another 800000. Moved into kansas nthe.

Dakotas and nebraska that s right people moved to nebraska nsorry. I just hadn t yet offended nebraskans. I m looking to get through the list before nthe end of the year. But one of the central reasons that so many people nmoved out west was that the demand for agricultural nproducts was increasing due tothe growth of cities in 1880.

20 of the american population nlived in. Cities and there were 12 cities with a npopulation over 100000. People. This rose to 18 cities in 1900 with.

The npercentage of urban dwellers rising to 38 . And by 1920. 68 of americans lived in cities. Nand.

26 cities had a population over 100000..


So in the 40 years around the turn of the 20th century namerica became the world s largest industrial power nand went from being predominantly rural to largely urban. This is to use a technical historian term na really big deal because it didn t just make cities possible nbut also their products. It s no coincidence that while all this was nhappening. We were getting cool stuff like nelectric lights and moving picture cameras.

Neither of which were invented by nthomas edison. I don t know if you ve. Noticed but suddenly there are a lot more photographs in crash course us. History b.

Roll. So the city leading the way in this urban ngrowth was new york especially after manhattan was nconsolidated with brooklyn and the bronx nqueens and staten island in 1898. At the turn of the century. The population of the 23 nsquare.

Miles of manhattan island was over 2 million. And the combined 5 boroughs had a npopulation over 4 million. But while new york gets most of the attention nin this time period and all time periods since it nwasn t alone in experiencing massive growth like my old hometown of chicago. After nbasically burning to the ground in 1871.

Became nthe second largest city in america by the 1890s also they reversed the flow of the nfreaking chicago river probably the second most impressive nfeat in chicago at the time the first being that the cubs won two nworld series even though. I m sorely tempted to chalk up the ngrowth of these metropolises to a combination of nbetter nutrition and a rise in skoodilypooping. I m going to have to bow to stupid historical accuracy and tell you that much of the growth had to do with the phenomenon that this period. Is most known for immigration of course by the end of the 19th century immigration nwas not a new phenomenon in the united states after the first wave of colonization by english people and spanish people and other europeans.

There was a new wave of scandinavians french people and especially the irish. Most of you probably know about the npotato famine of the 1840s that led a million nirish men and women to flee. If you don t know nabout. It it was awful.

And the second largest wave of immigrants was nmade up of german speakers including a number of nliberals who left after the abortive revolutions of 1848 all right let s go to the thought bubble. The irish had primarily been farmers in the nmotherland. But in america they tended to nstay in cities like new york and boston most of the men began their working lives as nlow wage unskilled laborers. But over time they came nto have much more varied job opportunities irish immigrant women worked too some in nfactories or as domestic servants in the homes nof.

The growing upper class. Many women actually preferred the freedom that nfactory labor provided and one irish factory woman ncompared her life to that of a servant by saying our day is ten hours long but when it s ndone. It s done and we can do what we like nwith the evenings. That s what i ve heard from every nice girl nthat s tried service.

You re never sure that your soul is your nown. Except when you re out of the house. Most german speakers had been farmers in their nhome countries. And would remain farmers in the us nbut.

A number of skilled artisans also came they tended to stay in cities and nmake. A go of entrepreneurship bismarck himself saw emigration from ngermany as a good thing. Saying. The better it goes for us.

The higher the nvolume of emigration and that s why we named a city in nnorth dakota..


After him. Although enough german immigrants came to new york that the lower east side of manhattan came. To be known for a time as kleindeutschland little germany . Many moved to the growing cities of the nmidwest like cincinnati and st.

Louis. Some of the most famous german nimmigrants became brewers and america is much richer for the arrival of men like frederick pabst. Joseph schlitz and adolphus busch and by richer. I mean drunker hey thanks for not ending on a downer nthought bubble.

I mean unless you count alcoholism so but by the 1890s over half of the 35. Million immigrants who came to our shores came from southern and eastern europe in particular italy and the russian and austro hungarian empires. They were more likely than previous nimmigrants to be jewish or catholic and while almost all of them were looking nfor work. Many were also escaping political nor religious persecution and by the 1890s.

They also had to face nnew scientific theories which i m putting in air quotes to be clear. Because nthere was nothing scientific about them which consigned them to different races whose nlow level of civilization was fit only for certain kinds of nwork and predisposed them to criminality. The immigration restriction league was founded nin boston in 1894 and lobbied for national legislation nthat would limit the numbers of immigrants and one such law. Even passed congress in 1897 nonly to be vetoed by president grover.

Cleveland. Good work grover you know his first name nwas stephen. But he called himself grover. I would have made a different choice.

But before you get too excited about ngrover cleveland congress. And the president were able to agree on none group of immigrants to discriminate against nthe chinese chinese immigrants overwhelmingly male had been coming to the united states mostly to the west since the 1850s to work in mines and on the railroads. They were viewed with suspicion because they looked different spoke a different language and they had strange habits like regular bathing by the. Time the chinese exclusion act went into effect in 1882 there were 105000.

People of chinese descent living in the united states mainly in cities on the west coast san francisco refused to educate asians until the state supreme court ordered them to do so and even then the city responded by nsetting up segregated schools. The immigrants fought back through nthe courts in 1886 in the case of yick wo. V. Hopkins.

The united states supreme court ordered san francisco to grant chinese operated laundries licenses to operate then in 1898 in united states v. Wong kim ark. The court ruled that american born children of chinese immigrants were entitled to citizenship under the 14th amendment. Which should have been a duh.

But wasn t we ve been hard on the supreme court here at ncrash course. But those were two good decisions you go supreme court but despite these victories asian immigrants continued to face discrimination in the form of vigilante led riots like the one in rock springs. Wyoming. That killed 26 people and congressionally approved restrictions.

Many of which the supreme court did uphold. So meh also it s important to remember that this nlarge scale. Immigration and the fear of it nwas part of a global phenomenon at its peak between 1901. And the outbreak nof world war.

1..


In 1914 13 million immigrants ncame to the united states in the entire period touched off by the nindustrialization from 1840 until 1914 a total nof 40 million people came to the us. But at least 20 million people emigrated to other nparts of the western hemisphere. Including brazil nthe caribbean canada. Yes.

Canada and argentina. As much as we have italian immigrants to thank nfor things. Like pizza and we do thank. You argentina can be just as grateful for the nimmigrant ancestors of leo messi also the pope.

Although. He has never once nwon. La liga. And there was also extensive immigration nfrom india to other parts of the british empire nlike south africa chinese immigration to south america and nthe caribbean.

I mean the list goes on and on in short america is nnot as special as it fancies itself. Oh. It s time for the mystery document nthe rules. Here are simple.

I guess. The author of the mystery document i get it wrong and then i get shocked with nthe shock. Pen sorry. I don t mean to sound defeatist.

But i ndon t have a good feeling about this all right the figure that challenged attention to nthe group was the tall straight father with his earnest face and fine forehead. Nervous nhands. Eloquent in gesture and a voice full of feeling this foreigner who brought his children to nschool as if it were an act of consecration who regarded the teacher of the primer class nwith reverence who spoke of visions like a man ninspired in a common classroom. I think miss nixon guessed what my nfather s best english could not convey i think she divined that by the simple act nof delivering our school certificates to her nhe took possession of america uhh.

I don t know at first. I thought it nmight be someone who worked with immigrants like jane addams. But then at the end nsuddenly. It s her own.

Father. Buzz. Jane addams s father was nnot an immigrant mary antin. Does she even have na wikipedia.

Page. She does did you write it stan stan nwrote. Her wikipedia page ah so this document while it was written by nsomeone who should not have a wikipedia page points out that most immigrants to america were ncoming for the most obvious reason opportunity industrialization both in manufacturing and nagriculture meant that there were jobs in america. There was so much work in fact that ncompanies used labor recruiters.

Who went nto europe to advertise opportunities. Plus. The passage was relatively cheap. Provided nyou were only going to make it once in your life.

And it was fast taking only 8 to 12 ndays on the new steam powered ships the lower east side of manhattan became the nmagnet for waves of immigrants first germans then eastern european jews and italians who ntended to re create towns and neighborhoods nwithin blocks and sometimes single buildings tenements these 4 5 and 6 story..


Buildings nthat were designed to be apartments sprang nup in the second half of the 19th century and the earliest ones were so unsanitary nand crowded that the city passed laws. Requiring na minimum of light and ventilation and often these tenement apartments doubled as workspaces because many immigrant women and children took in piecework especially in the garment industry. Despite laws mandating. The occasional window nand outlawing.

The presence of cows on public streets nconditions in these cities were pretty bad things got better with the construction of nelevated railroads and later subways that nhelped relieve traffic congestion. But they ncreated. A new problem pickpockets pickpockets take advantage of the confusion. Nto ply.

Their vocation. The foul close heated air is poisonous. A healthy person cannot ride. A dozen nblocks.

Without a headache. So. That s changed. This new transportation technology also enabled na greater degree of residential segregation in cities manhattan s downtown area.

Had at one time nhoused the very rich as well as the very poor. But improved transportation meant that people nno longer had to live and work in the same place the wealthiest like cornelius. Vanderbilt and jp. Morgan constructed lavish palaces for themselves and uptown townhouses were common.

But until then one of the most notable feature of ngilded age cities like new york was that the rich and nthe poor lived in such close proximity to each other and this meant that with america s growing nurbanization. The growing distance between rich nand. Poor was visible to both rich and poor. And much as we see in today s megacity this ninability to look away from poverty and economic ninequality.

Became a source of concern now one way to alleviate concern is to create nsuburbs. So you don t have to look at poor people. But another response to urban problems nwas politics. Which in cities like new york nbecame.

Something of a contact sport. Another response was the so called nprogressive reform. Movement and in all these responses and in the nissues that prompted them urbanization mechanization capitalism. The ndistribution of resources throughout the social order nwe can see modern industrial america taking shape.

And that is the america we live in today nthank you for watching i ll see you next week. Crash course is produced and directed by stan nmuller. The script supervisor is meredith danko. The show is written by my history teacher nraoul meyer rosianna halse rojas and myself our associate producer is danica johnson nand our graphics team is thought caf every week.

There s a new caption for the nlibertage if you d like to suggest one you can do so in comments. Where you can also ask questions about today s video that will be answered by our team of historians. ” ..

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