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” s a question for you let s say we react in zinc metal with aqueous aqueous copper to chloride will the reaction proceed or should we write no reaction. How we tell how do we find the answer to that question now there s something called the activity series which can help you to determine if a reaction will proceed or not in a single displacement reaction. Which is what we have here now you can look up the activity series in google images if you want a complete list. But i m just going to give you some of the elements.
Just so you can answer. The questions in this video. Now you need to know that lithium is more reactive than sodium which is more reactive than magnesium and then you have aluminum zinc iron metal nickel hydrogen copper silver and gold silver and gold are the least reactive noble metals. So make sure you understand that lithium is the most reactive and so reactivity increases towards the left and elements like silver and gold.
They are the least reactive. So now let s go back to the question that we re dealing with how can we determine if is going to be a reaction. How can we use the activity series to find an answer you need to ask yourself a question can solid zinc metal displace the copper in the aqueous solution is zinc metal stronger and then copper and so looking at what we have zinc is to the left of copper and so we can say that zinc is stronger than copper. So the reaction will proceed so now that we know that the reaction will work how can we determine the products of the reaction.
So this is a single displacement reaction. We have element a reacting with a compound. Which we could say compound bc. A is zinc b.
As copper c. Is chlorine. And so what s gonna happen is a is going to kick out b and parable scene so b is gonna be by itself an a will be attached to c. So in this case copper will be by itself.
It s going to precipitate out of the solution as a solid and zinc is going to pair up with chlorine now whenever you re writing. An ionic compound. You need to make sure that the charges are balanced. So that you can write the formula.
Correctly. The zinc in a as an ion has a two plus charge chlorine has a minus 1 charge. So to balance the charges..
We need two chloride ions. It s a pair up with a zinc two plus ion. So. The formula is gonna be zn cl.
2. And because it s soluble in water. We re gonna write aq. It s gonna dissolve in water.
It s gonna be in the aqueous phase. Now let s try another example for the sake of practice. But let s react copper metal with our in to sulfate go ahead and try this problem so using the activity series will this reaction. Proceed as rain will it work is copper strong.
Enough to this place iron out of the solution now copper is to the right of iron metal. So therefore we can say that copper is weaker than iron metal so because it s weaker it cannot displace iron metal out of the solution so for this example there s going to be no reaction it will not work copper is less reactive than iron metal and so that s how you can use the activity series to determine if a single replacement reaction will proceed as written or if there s going to be no reaction here s another example let s make solid aluminum metal with aqueous hydrochloric acid will the reaction proceed as written so using the activity series. What would you say is they gonna work or should we write. No reaction is aluminum metal is it strong enough to displace hydrogen out of the solution.
So aluminium metal is to the left of hydrogen. So it s more reactive so we could say that aluminium is stronger in terms of chemical reactivity relative to hydrogen so yes. This will work so aluminum is going to displace hydrogen and so it s we re gonna write it as a pure element now hydrogen you don t want to write just h. It s a diatomic gas.
So you need to write h2 and then aluminium is going to pair up with the chlorine. Now aluminium has a three plus charge as an ion. So we need three chloride ions to balance the positive three charge on the aluminum cation. So to write the formula.
It s going to be 8 l. Cl. 3..
And it s soluble. So we re going to write aq. So. That s how you can predict the products of a single replacement reaction now the next thing that we need to do is balance.
The chemical equation. So what coefficients can we write such that all of the atoms in this equation will be balanced. So right now we have three chlorine atoms on the right side. But only one on the left side so that may indicate that we need to put a three in front of hcl.
Let me use a different color. Now if we do that the number of hydrogen atoms will not be balanced and to make it equal. We have three hydrogen atoms on the left right now. We only have two on the right so.
What do you think we need to do to make it equal. We need to use the fraction. 3 over 2 because 3 over 2 times. 2.
The twos will cancel and you ll get. 3. However we don t want to deal with fractions when writing the coefficients of a balanced equation we want to use whole numbers and so what i m gonna do now is i m gonna double everything so i m gonna start by putting a 6 in front of hcl. So now i have 6 hydrogen atoms.
If you want to write it out you can do it this way. So. I currently have six hydrogen atoms on the left side. One aluminum atom on the left.
And six chlorine atoms on the right side. I have one aluminum atom two hydrogen atoms and three chlorine atoms so i need to put a 3 in front of h2. Such that i will now have 6 hydrogen atoms on both sides..
Now the next thing. I need to do is balance. The chlorine atoms. I have six on the left two on i mean three on the right rather.
So. What i needs to do is put a 2 in front of alcl3 so this will not become 6. And this changes to 2. So i need to put a 2 in front of al and now everything is balanced and so that s it for that example.
Now. Let s talk about right in chemical reactions with halogens as it relates to single displacement reactions. So let s say if i m reacting chlorine gas. With aqueous sodium.
Bromide will the reaction proceed uh. Sir in what would you say well let s find out for the halogens. You need to use a different activity series you need to know that fluorine is the most reactive halogen is more reactive than chlorine. Which is more reactive than bromine and that s more reactive than iodine.
So reactivity increases to the left. So using that particular activity series. Can we say that chlorine is strong enough to displace the bromide ion out of the solution. A halogen will displace another halation out of the solution.
If is strong enough. But in a previous examples. We considered a metal displace in another metal out of the solution with the exception of hydrogen of course so using this activity series. We can see that chlorine is stronger than bromine so this reaction will work so what s gonna happen is chlorine is going to kick out bromine out of the solution and it s going to pair up with sodium.
So we re gonna get elemental bromine. Which is in a liquid state at room temperature and sodium is going to pair up with chlorine. Now sodium has a positive one charge chlorine has a negative one charge..
So the charges are balanced in the one to one ratio. Thus. The chemical formula is simply nacl and that is soluble. So we re going to write aq.
So balance. A chemical equation all we need to do is put a 2 in front of nacl and in front of any br and it s gonna be balanced now i m gonna try one more example the final one for this video. So let s react solid iodine with aqueous sodium chloride go ahead and predict the product of this reaction. Or rather the products.
So iodine is it strong enough to displace the chloride ion out of the solution. Now iodine is on the right side. It s less reactive than chlorine. So because it s a weaker this reaction will not proceed as rayon.
So therefore our answer is simply. No reaction iodine is not reactive enough to this place. The chloride out of the solution. It s not going to work.
And so hopefully. This video gave you a good understanding of how to determine if a reaction will proceed when dealing with single replacement reactions and so that s all you need to do you need to use the activity series. So thanks again for watching. And if you like this video feel free to subscribe to this channel.
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